你做到主谓统一了吗?

与中文写作不同,英文写作有很多语法规范。主谓统一就是其中最基本的一种。虽然通常不会引起太大注意,但是对于学术论文有时非常重要。首先语法会影响读者对作者的评价,其次语法有可能会导致研究结论的表述偏差!下面我们来讲解几种主谓统一的例子。


 

第一种,主语由多个名词或代词,由and 连接时,谓语应该是复数。例如:She and her friends are at the fair.

第二种,主语由多个单数名词或代词,由or或nor连接时,谓语应该是单数。例如:The book or the pen is in the drawer.

第三种,主语由单数和复数名词或代词,由or或nor连接时,谓语应该是与最近的名词一致(就近原则)。例如:The boy or his friends run every day. His friends or the boy runs every day.

第四种,需要用到助动词的时候;一般情况下,单数主语与does一起用,复数主语与do一起用。特殊情况是,当主语是第一(I)或第二人称(You)代词时,都与do一起用。例如:He doesn’t like it. They don’t like it.

第五种,在主谓之间有短语的情况下,谓语要与主语一致,忽略中间的短语。例如:One of the boxes is open. The people who listen to that music are few. The team captain, as well as his players, is anxious.

第六种,这些单词的谓语都应该是单数形式:each、each one、either、neither、everyone、everybody、anybody、anyone、nobody、somebody、someone、no one。例如:Each of these hot dogs is juicy. Everybody knows Mr. Jones. Either is correct.

第七种,这些名词的谓语也应该是单数形式:civics、mathematics、dollars、measles、news。注意当dollars作为钱的单位的时候,谓语是单数形式;但当美元表示自身的时候,谓语可能是复数。例如:Five dollars is a lot of money. Dollars are often used instead of rubles in Russia.

第八种,这些名词的谓语应该是复数:scissors、tweezers、trousers、shears,因为单个物品由两个部分组成。例如:These scissors are dull. Those trousers are made of wool.

第九种,以 there is 或 there are 开头的句子,所跟的名词单复数跟谓语一致。例如:There are many questions. There is a question.

第十种,集合名词暗示了多个人物,但谓语仍然用单数,像group、team、committee、class、family;people除外。例如:The team runs during practice. The committee decides how to proceed.

第十一种,名词或代词之间,尽管含有联合意思的表达像with、together with、including、accompanied by、in addition to、as well,谓语仍然跟主语一致,忽略中间的短语!例如:The President, accompanied by his wife, is traveling to India.

倘若以上例句是填空题,你能答全对吗?

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