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cooperate 与 collaborate

动词 cooperate 与 collaborate 的意义相近,两者都几乎与 work together 同义;然而,这两个单词间还是存在重要差异,而且通常不可互换使用。cooperate 与 collaborate 间的主要差异在于其意义的广泛程度。在这两个单词中,cooperate 表示的意思定义较为广泛,而且传达纯粹的“共同努力”的概念。尽管 collaborate 也有这个意思,但它表达的概念更为精准。具体而言,collaborate不仅是纯粹的“共同努力”,其表达了“通过共同努力达到特定结果”的概念。因此,cooperate 的重点在于共同努力本身的过程,而 collaborate 则是强调这个过程希望达到的成果。

以下例句说明 cooperatecollaborate 及其名词形式 cooperationcollaboration 的正确用法。[1]

  1. Thomas and Yamada have collaborated on several research projects.
  2. We are presently collaborating on three papers.
  3. Their collaboration produced important results.
  4. The patient did not cooperate with her physical therapist.
  5. Your cooperation in dealing with this problem is requested.
  6. The referee did not cooperate with the editor.

[1] cooperationcollaboration 间的差异类似于 cooperatecollaborate 间的差异。